Prostate cancer is cancer of the prostate gland. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system that surrounds the urethra just below the bladder. Most prostate cancers grow slowly. Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body, especially the bones and lymph nodes. It may cause no symptoms initially. In later stages, symptoms include pain or difficulty urinating, blood in the urine or pain in the pelvis or back. Benign prostatic hyperplasia can cause similar symptoms. Other late symptoms include fatigue due to low levels of red blood cells.
Factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer include advanced age, family history and race. About 99% of cases occur after age 50. A first-degree relative with the disease increases the risk two to threefold. Other factors include a diet high in processed meat and red meat, while the risk of a high intake of dairy products is inconclusive. An association has been found with gonorrhea, although no reason for this relationship has been found. Increased risk is associated with the BRCA mutations. Diagnosis is by biopsy. Medical imaging can be done to assess whether metastasis is present.
Prostate cancer screening, including prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, increases cancer detection, but whether it improves outcomes is controversial. Informed decision-making is recommended for 55- to 69-year-olds. Testing, if performed, is more appropriate for those with longer life expectancy. Although 5α-reductase inhibitors appear to reduce low-grade cancer risk, they do not affect high-grade cancer risk and are not recommended for prevention. Vitamin or mineral supplementation does not seem to affect the risk.
BeterKliniek is the clinic for Integrative Medicine that bridges regular and non-regular medicine.
An van Veen (physician) and Michael van Gils (therapist) look for the cause of a condition or disease. That is where the treatment starts otherwise, as people often say, it is 'carrying water to the sea'. We call this cause medicine. Sometimes it is also desirable to treat the symptoms (at the same time). We call this symptom medicine.
Chronic disorders often have their cause in epi- genetics. You can schedule a free informative telephone consultation (phone number 040-7117337 until 1 p.m.) at BeterKliniek to discuss your symptoms so that we can provide you with further advice.